Determining frequencies of avirulent alleles in airborne Leptosphaeria maculans inoculum using quantitative PCR
Van de Wouw, A. P.; Stonard, J. F.; Howlett, B. J.; West, Jon S.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.; Atkins, S. D.
Citation: Van de Wouw , A P , Stonard , J F , Howlett , B J , West , J S , Fitt , B D L & Atkins , S D 2010 , ' Determining frequencies of avirulent alleles in airborne Leptosphaeria maculans inoculum using quantitative PCR ' Plant Pathology , vol 59 , no. 5 , pp. 809-818 . , 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02311.x
Phoma stem canker (blackleg disease) of Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola) is caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Frequencies of avirulent alleles for loci where virulence can be associated with gene deletion (AvrLm1 and AvrLm6) were determined in samples of L. maculans airborne ascospore inoculum using quantitative PCR. The accuracy, reproducibility and limitations of detection were determined. Changes in the frequency of avirulent alleles were determined for the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons for winter oilseed rape in the UK. The frequency of AvrLm1 remained small (between 9% and 16%), whilst the frequency of AvrLm6 fluctuated between 35% and 66%. Estimation of frequencies of avirulent alleles in airborne pathogen inoculum gives an efficient and unbiased method to assess the potential of crop cultivars with corresponding resistance genes being at risk of disease.