Self-reported depression symptoms in haemodialysis patients: Bi-factor structures of two common measures and their association with clinical factors
Objective: To validate the factor structure of two common self-report depression tools in a large sample of haemodialysis (HD) patients and to examine their demographic and clinical correlates, including urine output, history of depression and transplantation. Methods: Factor structures of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data was utilised from the screening phase (n = 709) of a placebo-controlled feasibility randomised control trial (RCT) of sertraline in HD patients with mild to moderate Major Depressive Disorder. Alternative factor models including bi-factor models for the BDI-II and PHQ-9 were evaluated. Coefficient omega and omega-hierarchical were calculated. Results: For both measures, bi-factor measurement models had the overall best fit to the data, with dominant general depression factors. Omega-hierarchical for the general BDI-II and PHQ-9 factors was 0.94 and 0.88 respectively. Both general factors had high reliability (coefficient omega = 0.97 and 0.94 respectively) and explained over 85% of the explained common variance within their respective models. BDI-II and PHQ-9 general depression factors were negatively associated with age and urine output and positively with a history of depression, antidepressant use within the last 3 months and a history of failed transplantation. In adjusted regression models, age, urine output and a history of depression remained significant. Conclusions: These data suggest that both the BDI-II and PHQ-9 are sufficiently unidimensional to warrant the use of a total score. Younger age, lower urine output and a history of depression appear consistent correlates of depression severity among HD patients.