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dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John
dc.contributor.authorStreete, Peter
dc.contributor.authorClaridge, Hugh
dc.contributor.authorGoodair, Christine
dc.contributor.authorPapanti, Duccio G.
dc.contributor.authorOrsolini, Laura
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorSikka, Kanav
dc.contributor.authorKörber, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorHendricks, Amy
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-21T15:09:23Z
dc.date.available2019-08-21T15:09:23Z
dc.date.issued2019-09-01
dc.identifier.citationCorkery , J , Streete , P , Claridge , H , Goodair , C , Papanti , D G , Orsolini , L , Schifano , F , Sikka , K , Körber , S & Hendricks , A 2019 , ' Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use ' , Journal of Psychopharmacology , vol. 33 , no. 9 , pp. 1102-1123 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119862530
dc.identifier.issn0269-8811
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 16989720
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 0cbef930-8a64-4538-9cbf-7cb5e914df2e
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85071493122
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/21622
dc.descriptionSubmitted on 15 February 2019. Reviewers’ comments received 10 May 2019. Revision accepted 17 June 2019. Published early online 20 August 2019. Published with Volume, etc. 5 September 2019.
dc.description.abstractBackground: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events. Aims: This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a ‘state-of-the-art’ review. Methods: UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms ‘kratom’, ‘mitragynine’, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and ‘death’, ‘fatal*’, ‘overdose’, ‘poisoning’, etc. to identify additional cases; details were obtained from relevant officials. Case characteristics were extracted into an Excel spreadsheet, and analysed employing descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Typical case characteristics (n = 156): male (80%), mean age 32.3 years, White (100%), drug abuse history (95%); reasons for use included self-medication, recreation, relaxation, bodybuilding, and avoiding positive drug tests. Mitragynine alone was identified/implicated in 23% of cases. Poly substance use was common (87%), typically controlled/recreational drugs, therapeutic drugs, and alcohol. Death cause(s) included toxic effects of kratom ± other substances; underlying health issues. Conclusions: These findings add substantially to the knowledge base on kratom-associated deaths; these need systematic, accurate recording. Kratom’s safety profile remains only partially understood; toxic and fatal levels require quantification.en
dc.format.extent22
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Psychopharmacology
dc.subjectMitragynine
dc.subjectcause of death
dc.subjectcharacteristics
dc.subjectkratom
dc.subjecttoxicology
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.subjectPsychiatry and Mental health
dc.subjectPharmacology (medical)
dc.titleCharacteristics of deaths associated with kratom useen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Clinical Practice, Safe Medicines and Drug Misuse Research
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071493122&partnerID=8YFLogxK
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119862530
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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