Understanding the use of prescription and OTC drugs in obtaining illicit highs and the pharmacist role in preventing abuse
There have been increasing reports of misuse of a range of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs for recreational purposes. The use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals and ‘pharming’ are new, widespread phenomena involving the non-medical use of prescription and OTC drugs, which are recreationally used to achieve psychoactive effects either on their own or in combination with other substances. This article provides an overview of the topic, focusing on a range of medicines (e.g. prescription medicines such as quetiapine, gabapentinoids, Z-drugs, bupropion, venlafaxine, and over-the-counter medicines such as loperamide, dextromethorphan, benzydamine, promethazine, chlorphenamine, diphenhydramine and hyoscine butylbromide) that have emerged as misused and diverted, or already described through the literature, as well as recorded by drug users’ online websites reporting new trends and experimentations of drug abuse. This rapidly changing drug scenario represents a challenge for pharmacy, psychiatry, public health and drug control policies. Moreover, possibly resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, drug use-habits and availability have changed, causing a shift in behaviours relating to both prescription and OTC medicines. Healthcare professionals should be aware of potential prescription drugs diversion, recognise misuse cases, consider the possibility of polydrug misuse, and prevent it where possible. Pharmacists can play a key role in preventing and reducing drug abuse and should be involved in evidence-based actions to detect, understand and prevent drug diversion activities and the adverse effects of drug-misuse.