University of Hertfordshire

Susceptibility of cat fleas (siphonaptera: Puclicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays

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contributor authorRust, M. K.
contributor authorVetter, R
contributor authorDenholm, Ian
contributor authorBlagburn, B
contributor authorWilliamson, Martin S.
contributor authorKopp, S.
contributor authorColeman, G.
contributor authorHostetler, J
contributor authorDavis, W
contributor authorMencke, N.
contributor authorRees, R
contributor authorFoit, S
contributor authorTetzner, K
date accessioned2017-09-13T15:58:21Z
date available2017-09-13T15:58:21Z
date issued2014-05-01
identifier citationRust , M K , Vetter , R , Denholm , I , Blagburn , B , Williamson , M S , Kopp , S , Coleman , G , Hostetler , J , Davis , W , Mencke , N , Rees , R , Foit , S & Tetzner , K 2014 , ' Susceptibility of cat fleas (siphonaptera: Puclicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays ' Journal of Medical Entomology , vol 51 , no. 3 , pp. 638-643 . DOI: 10.1603/ME13240en
identifier issn1938-2928
identifier otherPURE: 10517750
identifier otherPURE UUID: 4ace4d9f-4301-4c49-ac1a-d1db76d09d90
identifier otherScopus: 84899862758
identifier uri
description© 2014 Entomological Society of America This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.comen
description abstractThe monitoring of the susceptibility offleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of chemistry now being used. However, the relationship between adult and larval bioassays of fleas has not been previously investigated. The adult and larval bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid were compared for both field-collected isolates and laboratory strains. Adult topical bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid to laboratory strains and field-collected isolates demonstrated that LD50s of fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 nanograms per flea and 0.02 to 0.18 nanograms per flea, respectively. Resistance ratios for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 2.21. Based on the larval bioassay published for imidacloprid, a larval bioassay was established for fipronil and reported in this article. The ranges of the LC50s of fipronil and imidacloprid in the larval rearing media were 0.07-0.16 and 0.11-0.21 ppm, respectively. Resistance ratios for adult and larval bioassays ranged from 0.11 to 2.2 and 0.58 to 1.75, respectively. Both adult and larval bioassays provided similar patterns for fipronil and imidacloprid. Although the adult bioassays permitted a more precise dosage applied, the larval bioassays allowed for testing isolates without the need to maintain on synthetic or natural hosts.en
format extent6en
language isoeng
relation ispartofJournal of Medical Entomologyen
subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciences(all)en
titleSusceptibility of cat fleas (siphonaptera: Puclicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassaysen
contributor institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciencesen
contributor institutionDepartment of Biological and Environmental Sciencesen
contributor institutionAgriculture, Veterinary and Food Sciencesen
contributor institutionGeography, Environment and Agricultureen
contributor institutionCrop and Environmental Protectionen
contributor institutionEcologyen
identifier doi
description versionpublishersversionen
description statusPeer revieweden

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