Citation: Nomoto , K , Umeda , H & Kobayashi , C 2002 , Type Ia supernovae and chemical evolution of galaxies . in K Nomoto & J W Truran (eds) , Cosmic Chemical Evolution . Kluwer , DORDRECHT , pp. 33-46 .
The cosmic/galactic chemical evolutions have been modeled with the early metal enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe II) and the delayed enrichment of Fe by Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, the exact nature of SN Ia progenitors have been obscure. Here we present the currently most plausible scenario of the progenitor binary systems of SNe Ia. This scenario involves strong winds from accreting white dwarfs, which introduces important metallicity effects, namely, low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. Resultant predictions for the Galactic/cosmic chemical evolution and the cosmic SNe Ia rate are presented. Another importance of identifying the SN Ia progenitors lies in the use of SNe Ia as a "standard candle" to determine cosmological parameters. To examine whether the "evolution" of SNe Ia with redshift and metallicity is significant, we discuss how the metallicity affects the properties of the C+O white dwarfs such as the C/O ratio, and find the metallicity dependence is rather weak.