Factors affecting development of phoma canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) on stems of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England
Fitt, Bruce D.L.
West, Jon S.
In winter oilseed rape experiments at Rothamsted in 1997/98 (cvs Lipton and Capitol), 1998/99 (cv. Apex) and 1999/2000 (cvs Apex, Lipton and Capitol), development of crown canker and phoma stem lesions in spring was related to development of phoma leaf spot in the previous autumn/winter. There were differences in thermal time (degree-days) from the first appearance of phoma leaf spot (autumn) to the first appearance of crown canker (spring) between cultivars (cvs Lipton and Capitol, 12201240; cv. Apex, 1120-1140 degree-days) but not between growing seasons. In 1998/99 and 1999/2000, fungicide (November) treatment delayed the start of crown canker development in the spring but did not affect the rate of increase in severity. In 1997/98, fungicide treatments did not delay the appearance of crown canker but decreased the rate of increase in crown canker severity. In all three seasons, fungicide treatments generally decreased the proportions of plants at harvest with crown canker severity scores 3 or 4 and increased the proportions with scores 0 or 1. There were differences between seasons in the distributions of crown canker severity scores at harvest. The severity of both crown canker and phoma stem lesions increased linearly with accumulated degree-days in plots with or without fungicide treatment in 1997/98 (cv. Lipton), 1998/99 (cv. Apex) and 1999/2000 (cv. Apex). Regressions showed that severity of crown canker at harvest in July was related to severity in the spring in 1997/98 (early June, cv. Lipton), 1998/99 and 1999/2000 (April, cv. Apex).