Methods of quantum field theory for trapped Bose–Einstein condensates
New, G. H. C.
In this tutorial we present an introduction to some theoretical methods of quantum field theory applied to the description of a trapped Bose–Einstein condensate. First of all, we give a brief account of the main characteristics of the phenomenon of condensation and present the many-body Hamiltonian of the system. We outline some of the most important approaches used in the characterization of a condensed Bose gas, including the mean-field theory and the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov method. Finally we illustrate the use of these techniques addressing some important issues in quantum atom optics. We characterize the quantum state of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. We also describe a process of Beliaev coupling between quasiparticles using a method that includes terms beyond the usual Bogoliubov approach.