Comparative pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and its sulphate and glucuronide metabolites in desert camels and goats
Paracetamol was administered at dosages of 5 mg/kg to camels and 10 mg/kg to goats by the intravenous and intramuscular routes, Parent paracetamol had a significantly slower clearance (21.9 +/- 1.4 ml/mL . kg vs, 52.8 +/- 7.3 mL/min . kg) (P < 0.01) in camels than in goats. In camels the predominant metabolite in plasma was the sulphate, although the ratios of glucuronide:paracetamol and sulphate:paracetamol were similar (5.20 +/- 0.50 vs. 6.59 +/- 0.51 following intravenous administration. In goats the glucuronide metabolite was the predominant moiety in plasma, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the sulphate was only 3.39% of that of the glucuronide conjugate. The apparent AUC for paracetamol in the camel following intramuscular administration was larger than that following intravenous administration, however, when the bioavailability (F) was determined, with correction for altered half-life, within the animal and between study phases it was 71 +/- 17% in goats and 105 +/- 26% in camels.