Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar
 We summarize our Raman lidar observations which were carried out in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the past 10 years, with focus on particle extinction-to-backscatter ratios ( lidar ratios) and (A) over circle ngstrom exponents. For the first time, we present statistics on lidar ratios for almost all climatically relevant aerosol types solely based on Raman lidar measurements. Sources of continental particles were in North America and Europe, the Sahara, and south and Southeast and east Asia. The North Atlantic Ocean, and the tropical and South Indian Ocean were the sources of marine particles. The statistics are complemented with lidar ratios describing aged forest fire smoke and pollution from polar regions ( Arctic haze) after long-range transport. In addition, we present particle (A) over circle ngstrom exponents for the wavelength range from 355 to 532 nm and from 532 to 1064 nm. We compare our data set of lidar ratios to the recently published AERONET ( Aerosol Robotic Network) lidar ratio climatology. That climatology is based on aerosol scattering modeling in which AERONET Sun photometer observations serve as input. Raman lidar measurements of extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust and urban aerosols differ significantly from the numbers obtained with AERONET Sun photometers. There are also differences for some of the (A) over circle ngstrom exponents. Further comparison studies are needed to reveal the reason for the observed differences.