Changes in populations of the eyespot fungi Tapesia yallundae and T. acuformis under different fungicide regimes in successive crops of winter wheat, 1984-2000
Fitt, Bruce D.L.
Van Den Bosch, F.
Bateman, Geoffrey L.
Effects of regular treatments with the fungicides carbendazim and prochloraz applied to whole plots divided into subplots with different initial population mixtures of carbendazim-sensitive or carbendazim-resistant Tapesia yallundae or T acuformis were studied in successive crops of winter wheat from 1984/85 to 1999/2000. In unsprayed and carbendazim-sprayed whole plots, a stable coexistence of about 50% each of T yallundae and T acuformis developed within five seasons, but in whole plots sprayed with prochloraz or prochloraz plus carbendazim, the proportion of T acuformis increased to > 80%. A discrete time difference equation model was derived from knowledge of the biology of eyespot and competition theory to describe the population changes. The model was fitted to the data from treatments where coexistence occurred [subplots in unsprayed (1985-92) and carb endazim-sprayed (1985-89) whole plots], using nonlinear least squares regression. The optimized value of the resource overlap coefficient was small, suggesting niche differences between the two species. Populations were nearly 100% carbendazim-resistant in carbendazim-sprayed whole plots by July 1985 (one season) and in whole plots sprayed with prochloraz plus carbendazirn by July 1986 (two seasons). In prochloraz-sprayed whole plots, the proportion of carbendazim-resistant isolates decreased more rapidly than in unsprayed whole plots in the 1980s, but by July 1992 a shift in populations in unsprayed and prochloraz-sprayed whole plots towards predominantly carbendazim-resistant strains had occurred.