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dc.contributor.authorMisik, Jan
dc.contributor.authorPavlik, Michal
dc.contributor.authorNovotny, Ladislav
dc.contributor.authorPavlikova, Ruzena
dc.contributor.authorChilcott, Robert
dc.contributor.authorCabal, Jiri
dc.contributor.authorKuca, Kamil
dc.identifier.citationMisik , J , Pavlik , M , Novotny , L , Pavlikova , R , Chilcott , R , Cabal , J & Kuca , K 2012 , ' In vivo decontamination of the nerve agent VX using the domestic swine model ' , Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.) , vol. 50 , no. 9 , pp. 807-11 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 1938312
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c6d1bd3e-af5f-4dba-a565-1a90cb828f87
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 22963275
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84867702225
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this in vivo study was to assess a new, putatively optimised method for mass casualty decontamination ("ORCHIDS protocol") for effectiveness in removing the chemical warfare agent VX from the skin of anaesthetised, domestic white pigs. ORCHIDS protocol consists of a 1.5-minute shower with a mild detergent (Argos™) supplemented by physical removal. A standard method of wet decontamination was used for comparison. Experimental animals were divided into four groups (A-D). Two groups were exposed to a supra-lethal percutaneous dose (5 × LD(50); 300 μg kg(-1)) of VX for 1 h prior to decontamination with either the ORCHIDS (C) or standard protocol (D). A third (B, positive control) group was exposed but not subject to decontamination. Blank controls (A) received anaesthesia and the corresponding dose of normal saline instead of VX. Observations of the clinical signs of intoxication were supplemented by measurements of whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) performed on samples of arterial blood acquired at 30-minute intervals for the duration of the study (up to 6 h). Untreated (B) animals displayed typical cholinergic signs consistent with VX intoxication (local fasciculation, mastication, salivation, pilo-erection and motor convulsions) and died 165-240 min post exposure. All animals in both decontamination treatment groups (C, D) survived the duration of the study and exhibited less severe signs of cholinergic poisoning. Thus, both the standard and ORCHIDS protocol were demonstrably effective against exposure to the potent nerve agent VX, even after a delay of 1 h. A critical advantage of the ORCHIDS protocol is the relatively short shower duration (1½ min compared to 3 min). In practice, this could substantially improve the rate at which individuals could be decontaminated by emergency responders following exposure to toxic materials such as chemical warfare agents.en
dc.relation.ispartofClinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
dc.subjectOrganothiophosphorus Compounds
dc.subjectSus scrofa
dc.subjectChemical Warfare Agents
dc.titleIn vivo decontamination of the nerve agent VX using the domestic swine modelen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Pharmacy
dc.contributor.institutionHealth & Human Sciences Research Institute
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Research into Topical Drug Delivery and Toxicology
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review

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