Patterns of ascospore release in relation to phoma stem canker epidemiology in England (Leptosphaeria maculans) and Poland (Leptosphaeria biglobosa)
Fitt, Bruce D.L.
West, Jon S.
Steed, J. M.
Lil, Z. Q.
Experiments over five growing seasons at Rothamsted (1998/99-2002/03), four seasons at Boxworth (1998/99, 1999/2000, 2001/02, 2002/03) in England (Leptosphaeria maculans) and three seasons (1998/99-2000/01) at Poznan in Poland (Leptosphaeria biglobosa) suggest that differences in the development of phoma stem canker epidemics between England and Poland relate to differences in weather patterns between the two countries. The duration of ascospore release was longer in England, where winter weather is mild and wet, than in Poland, where winters are cold and often with snow cover, but there was little difference between two sites in England (Rothamsted and Boxworth). Wetness provided by rainfall was essential for release of ascospores of both L. maculans in England and L. biglobosa in Poland. Temperature did not affect release of ascospores over the range 5-20&DEG; C. Diurnal periodicity in release of ascospores of L. maculans in England and L. biglobosa in Poland was similar. The timing (date) of first release of ascospores of L. maculans or L. biglobosa in autumn was related to rainfall in August and September; with increasing rainfall the date was earlier. The incubation periods from first release of ascospores to first appearance of phoma leaf spots for both L. maculans in England and L. biglobosa in Poland, and from first leaf spots to first stem base canker in England, were described using a thermal time (degree-day) approximation.