A LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South-submillimeter properties of near-infrared selected galaxies
De Breuck, C.
Koekemoer, A. M.
van der Werf, P.
Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870μm survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near- IR) selected (K ≤ 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 μm fluxes of 0.22 ± 0.01 mJy (22.0σ), 0.48 ± 0.04 mJy (12.0σ), 0.39 ± 0.03 mJy (13.0σ), and 0.43 ± 0.04 mJy (10.8σ) for the K ≤ 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z ≃ 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of ∼(1-5) × 10 L⊙ and star formation rate (SFR) of ∼20-90M⊙ . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 ± 0.04 mJy, 12.5σ) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 ± 0.10 mJy, 3.4σ), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K ≤ 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 ± 0.34 Jy deg-2 (16.5% ± 5.7%) to the 870 μm extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 ± 0.22 Jy deg-2 (3.4% ± 1.3%) and 0.20 ± 0.14 Jy deg (0.5% ± 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K ≤ 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor ∼2-3 from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0. This is in line with a cosmic star formation history in which the star formation activity in galaxies increases significantly at z ≳ 1. A linear correlation between the average 24 μm and 870 μm flux densities is found for the K ≤ 20 galaxies with 24 μm fluxes ≳350μJy (corresponding to L 1.5 × 10 L⊙ at z ≃ 2), while at higher 24 μm fluxes there is no correlation. This behavior suggests that star formation, and not active galactic nuclei (AGNs), is in general responsible for the bulk of the mid-IR emission of L ≲ 1.5 × 10 L⊙ systems, while in more luminous systems the AGN makes a significant contribution to the 24 μm emission. By mapping the stacked 870 μm signal across the B - z versus z - K diagram we have confirmed the ability of the sBzK selection criterion to select star-forming galaxies at z > 1, although our analysis suggests that the subset of sBzK galaxies which are also EROs are responsible for >80% of the submm emission from the entire sBzK population.