Chemotherapy and delivery systems - helminths
The milbemycins are the only novel broad spectrum anthelmintic chemicals to reach the market place in the last 10 years. Many new systems for delivery and strategies for rational use have, however, been introduced. Boluses which are retained by virtue of specific gravity and by variable geometry are now available. They contain benzimidazoles, morantel, ivermectin and levamisole. Their release mechanisms involve preferential corrosion of a retaining metal core, constant diffusion from a laminated ethylene acetate sandwich, and a hydrostatic pump driven by osmotic pressure. Some are biodegradable. Experimental delivery systems have been developed incorporating ear implants and liposomes. The anthelmintic efficacy of some drugs has been potentiated by the synergistic action of metabolic inhibitors and these combinations hold promise for the future. Much new information is now available on those factors which affect anthelmintic efficacy such as concurrent administration with food and the presence of the target parasites themselves. This knowledge provides a sound basis for the rational use of anthelmintic drugs.