Plasma disposition of amikacin and interactions with gastrointestinal microflora in Equidae following intravenous and oral administration
Horspool, L. J.
Taylor, D. T.
Amikacin was detectable (> 0.02 micrograms/ml) in plasma for 12 h in horses and donkeys and for 8 h in ponies following intravenous (i.v.) administration at a dose rate of 6 mg/kg bodyweight. The elimination half-life (harmonic mean) of amikacin was 2.8, 1.6 and 1.9 h in horses, ponies and donkeys, respectively, and the mean body clearance was relatively slow (45.2, 82.4 and 58.0 ml/h.kg, respectively). A suitable dosage interval for the i.v. administration of amikacin sulphate to horses, ponies and donkeys, at a dose rate of 6 mg/kg, would be every 8 h in horses, and every 6 h in ponies and donkeys. Following i.v. administration there were no marked alterations in caecal liquor pH, the number of viable bacteria isolated, or the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in caecal liquor and faeces. Amikacin was not detected (<0.02 micrograms/ml) in plasma following administration by nasogastric tube to ponies with cannulated caecal fistulae; however, there were high concentrations of amikacin measured in caecal liquor (maximum 16.2-99.4 micrograms/ml). Despite the high drug concentrations in caecal liquor, there were only slight alterations in the number of viable bacteria isolated. However, there was a reduction in caecal liquor pH to <6.6, but few changes in caecal liquor SCFA concentrations. Faecal SCFA concentrations, dry matter content and consistency did not alter markedly.