Better be reactive at the beginning. Implications of the first seconds of an encounter for the tutoring style in human-robot-interaction
The paper investigates the effects of a robot's on-line feedback during a tutoring situation with a human tutor. Analysis is based on a study conducted with an iCub robot that autonomously generates its feedback (gaze, pointing gesture) based on the system's perception of the tutor's actions using the idea of reciprocity of actions. Sequential micro-analysis of two opposite cases reveals how the robot's behavior (responsive vs. non-responsive) pro-actively shapes the tutor's conduct and thus co-produces the way in which it is being tutored. A dialogic and a monologic tutoring style are distinguished. The first 20 seconds of an encounter are found to shape the user's perception and expectations of the system's competences and lead to a relatively stable tutoring style even if the robot's reactivity and appropriateness of feedback changes.