A review of recent perspectives on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury
There is considerable evidence to support a number of biomechanical risk factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This paper aimed to review these biomechanical risk factors and highlight future directions relating to them. Current perspectives investigating trunk position and relationships between strength, muscle activity and biomechanics during landing/cutting highlight the importance of increasing hamstring muscle force during dynamic movements through altering strength, muscle activity, muscle length and contraction velocity. In particular, increased trunk flexion during landing/cutting and greater hamstring strength are likely to increase hamstring muscle force during landing and cutting which have been associated with reduced ACL injury risk. Decision making has also been shown to influence landing biomechanics and should be considered when designing tasks to assess landing/cutting biomechanics. Coaches should therefore promote hamstring strength training and active trunk flexion during landing and cutting in an attempt to reduce ACL injury risk.