G-quadruplex formation of FXYD1 pre-mRNA indicates the possiblity of regulating expression of its protein product
Baydoun, A. R.
G-quadruplexes are higher-order nucleic acid structures formed of square-planar arrangements of four guanine bases held together by Hoogsteen-type hydrogen bonds. Stacks of guanine tetrads are stabilised by intercalating potassium ions. FXYD1 encodes for phospholemman, a regulatory subunit of the cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase. Computational sequence analysis of FXYD1 pre-mRNA predicted the formation of stable intramolecular G-quadruplexes in human and orthologue sequences. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that G-rich sequences are conserved in evolution suggesting a potential role of G-quadruplexes in FXYD1 gene expression. The existence of a non-functional alternative splicing product indicated that the G-quadruplex formation may control alternative splicing. Quadruplex formation of human and bovine oligonucleotides was confirmed in vitro by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and intrinsic fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Taking together the evolutionary conservation of G-quadruplex forming sequences with the confirmation of G-quadruplex formation in vitro by two FXYD1 homologues the results point to a potential role of these structures in regulating the expression of FXYD1 and thus regulate indirectly the activity of the cardiac Na+/K+ -ATPase.