Type Ia supernovae : Progenitors and diversities
A key question for supernova cosmology is whether the peak luminosities of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are sufficiently free from the effects of cosmic and galactic evolution. To answer this question, we review the currently popular scenario of SN Ia progenitors, i.e. the single degenerate scenario for the Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf (WD) models. We identify the progenitor's evolution with two channels: (1) the WD+RG (red-giant) and (2) the WD+MS (near main-sequence He-rich star) channels. The strong wind from accreting WDs plays a key role, which yields important age and metallicity effects on the evolution.We suggest that the variation of the carbon mass fraction X(C) in the C+O WD (or the variation of the initial WD mass) causes he diversity of SN Ia brightness. This model can explain the observed dependence of SNe Ia brightness on the galaxy types. We then predict how SN Ia brightness evolves along the redshift (with changing metallicity and age) for elliptical and spiral galaxies. Such evolutionary effects along the redshift can be corrected as has been made for local SNe Ia.We also touch on several related issues: (1) the abundance pattern of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies in relation to the metallicity effect on SNe Ia, (2) effects of angular momentum brought into the WD in relation to the diversities and the fate of double degenerates, and (3) possible presence of helium in the peculiar SN Ia 2000cx in relation to the sub-Chandrasekhar mass model.