The Optimization of Combined Power-Power Generation Cycles
Al-Anfaji, Ahmed Suaal Bashar
An investigation into the performance of several combined gas-steam power generating plants’ cycles was undertaken at the School of Engineering and Technology at the University of Hertfordshire and it is predominantly analytical in nature. The investigation covered in principle the aspect of the fundamentals and the performance parameters of the following cycles: gas turbine, steam turbine, ammonia-water, partial oxidation and the absorption chiller. Complete thermal analysis of the individual cycles was undertaken initially. Subsequently, these were linked to generate a comprehensive computer model which was employed to predict the performance and characteristics of the optimized combination. The developed model was run using various input parameters to test the performance of the cycle’s combination with respect to the combined cycle’s efficiency, power output, specific fuel consumption and the temperature of the stack gases. In addition, the impact of the optimized cycles on the generation of CO2 and NOX was also investigated. This research goes over the thermal power stations of which most of the world electrical energy is currently generated by. Through which, to meet the increase in the electricity consumption and the environmental pollution associated with its production as well as the limitation of the natural hydrocarbon resources necessitated. By making use of the progressive increase of high temperature gases in recent decades, the advent of high temperature material and the use of large compression ratios and generating electricity from high temperature of gas turbine discharge, which is otherwise lost to the environment, a better electrical power is generated by such plant, which depends on a variety of influencing factors. This thesis deals with an investigation undertaken to optimize the performance of the combined Brayton-Rankine power cycles' performance. This work includes a comprehensive review of the previous work reported in the literature on the combined cycles is presented. An evaluation of the performance of combined cycle power plant and its enhancements is detailed to provide: A full understanding of the operational behaviour of the combined power plants, and demonstration of the relevance between power generations and environmental impact. A basic analytical model was constructed for the combined gas (Brayton) and the steam (Rankine) and used in a parametric study to reveal the optimization parameters, and its results were discussed. The role of the parameters of each cycle on the overall performance of the combined power cycle is revealed by assessing the effect of the operating parameters in each individual cycle on the performance of the CCPP. P impacts on the environment were assessed through changes in the fuel consumption and the temperature of stack gases. A comprehensive and detailed analytical model was created for the operation of hypothetical combined cycle power and power plant. Details of the operation of each component in the cycle was modelled and integrated in the overall all combined cycle/plant operation. The cycle/plant simulation and matching as well as the modelling results and their analysis were presented. Two advanced configurations of gas turbine cycle for the combined cycle power plants are selected, investigated, modelled and optimized as a part of combined cycle power plant. Both configurations work on fuel rich combustion, therefore, the combustor model for rich fuel atmosphere was established. Additionally, models were created for the other components of the turbine which work on the same gases. Another model was created for the components of two configurations of ammonia water mixture (kalina) cycle. As integrated to the combined cycle power plant, the optimization strategy considered for these configurations is for them to be powered by the exhaust gases from either the gas turbine or the gases leaving the Rankine boiler (HRSG). This included ChGT regarding its performance and its environmental characteristics. The previously considered combined configuration is integrated by as single and double effect configurations of an ammonia water absorption cooling system (AWACS) for compressor inlet air cooling. Both were investigated and designed for optimizing the triple combination power cycle described above. During this research, tens of functions were constructed using VBA to look up tables linked to either estimating fluids' thermodynamic properties, or to determine a number of parameters regarding the performance of several components. New and very interesting results were obtained, which show the impact of the input parameters of the individual cycles on the performance parameters of a certain combined plant’s cycle. The optimized parameters are of a great practical influence on the application and running condition of the real combined plants. Such influence manifested itself in higher rate of heat recovery, higher combined plant thermal efficiency from those of the individual plants, less harmful emission, better fuel economy and higher power output. Lastly, it could be claimed that various concluding remarks drawn from the current study could help to improve the understanding of the behaviour of the combined cycle and help power plant designers to reduce the time, effort and cost of prototyping.