Factors Affecting the Uptake of Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Effectiveness of a Video Based Home Exercise Programme in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Adekunle, Ademola Olusegun
Introduction: The participation profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and the effectiveness of a video-based home exercise programme (VBHEP) were investigated using various research methods. Methods: The content analysis of the Move-On-Up exercise video against NICE guidelines and published research was performed. The video was evaluated for its suitability for use in VBHEP through focus groups involving UK population of patients with COPD and respiratory clinicians. Using the data from the content analysis and the focus groups, questionnaire items were synthesised for a national survey of both patients and clinicians. A study examined the relationship between participation in outpatient PR and patient measures of depression (Brief Assessment Depression Card), social support (Duke Social Support Index), multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) and COPD severity (Medical Research Council dyspnea score). A randomised control trial (RCT) evaluated the effect of combining VBHEP and conventional outpatient PR on walking ability and PR benefit maintenance. The intervention arm received VBHEP concurrently with outpatient PR, while the control arm received only outpatient PR. Outcome measures included: the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), quality of life (QoL) (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire- SGRQ), MHLC and a modified Follick's activity diary. Measures were taken before PR, at the fourth and eighth weeks of PR and at six months post-PR. Focus groups were conducted between six and 20 months post-PR to evaluate patients’ experience of and adherence to the use of VBHEP. Results: Critical review of 46 RCTs aided evaluation of the video demonstrating that the video content was consistent with both NICE recommendations and published research. The six focus groups that were part of the initial evaluation of the video involved 14 patients and 14 clinicians. The national survey generated responses from 60 patients and 62 clinicians; between 79 and 100% of respondents in each domain of the questionnaire indicated that the video is suitable for use. Fifty-one patients completed the study investigating the profile of patients participating in PR. The results indicated that depression has a moderate and negative statistically significant association with the uptake of PR (p<0.05). Fifty-seven patients participated in the RCT [mean age 66.51 years (SD 9.96), mean FEV1% predicted 54.51% (SD 10.47)]. The results indicated that the use of VBHEP with outpatient PR has no significant additive effect in improving or maintaining the benefits of walking ability following PR (p<0.05). Seven patients participated in the follow-up focus groups where findings suggested that patients were still participating in VBHEP up to 20 months after it was first prescribed, though the frequency of its use appeared to diminish after PR ended. Conclusion: The Move-On-Up exercise video is suitable for VBHEP in patients with COPD. Patients with COPD and depression are less likely to take up a referral to PR compared to those without depression. The use of VBHEP concurrently with PR has no additive effect in improving or maintaining benefits of walking ability following PR. Adverse social circumstances and disease severity reduce the duration of participation in VBHEP.