Optimal Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio
The rapid increasing interest in wireless communication has led to the continuous development of wireless devices and technologies. The modern convergence and interoperability of wireless technologies has further increased the amount of services that can be provided, leading to the substantial demand for access to the radio frequency spectrum in an efficient manner. Cognitive radio (CR) an innovative concept of reusing licensed spectrum in an opportunistic manner promises to overcome the evident spectrum underutilization caused by the inflexible spectrum allocation. Spectrum sensing in an unswerving and proficient manner is essential to CR. Cooperation amongst spectrum sensing devices are vital when CR systems are experiencing deep shadowing and in a fading environment. In this thesis, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) schemes have been designed to optimize detection performance in an efficient and implementable manner taking into consideration: diversity performance, detection accuracy, low complexity, and reporting channel bandwidth reduction. The thesis first investigates state of the art spectrums sensing algorithms in CR. Comparative analysis and simulation results highlights the different pros, cons and performance criteria of a practical CSS scheme leading to the problem formulation of the thesis. Motivated by the problem of diversity performance in a CR network, the thesis then focuses on designing a novel relay based CSS architecture for CR. A major cooperative transmission protocol with low complexity and overhead - Amplify and Forward (AF) cooperative protocol and an improved double energy detection scheme in a single relay and multiple cognitive relay networks are designed. Simulation results demonstrated that the developed algorithm is capable of reducing the error of missed detection and improving detection probability of a primary user (PU). To improve spectrum sensing reliability while increasing agility, a CSS scheme based on evidence theory is next considered in this thesis. This focuses on a data fusion combination rule. The combination of conflicting evidences from secondary users (SUs) with the classical Dempster Shafter (DS) theory rule may produce counter-intuitive results when combining SUs sensing data leading to poor CSS performance. In order to overcome and minimise the effect of the counter-intuitive results, and to enhance performance of the CSS system, a novel state of the art evidence based decision fusion scheme is developed. The proposed approach is based on the credibility of evidence and a dissociability degree measure of the SUs sensing data evidence. Simulation results illustrate the proposed scheme improves detection performance and reduces error probability when compared to other related evidence based schemes under robust practcial scenarios. Finally, motivated by the need for a low complexity and minmum bandwidth reporting channels which can be significant in high data rate applications, novel CSS quantization schemes are proposed. Quantization methods are considered for a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and an evidence based CSS scheme. For the MLE based CSS, a novel uniform and optimal output entropy quantization scheme is proposed to provide fewer overhead complexities and improved throughput. While for the Evidence based CSS scheme, a scheme that quantizes the basic probability Assignment (BPA) data at each SU before being sent to the FC is designed. The proposed scheme takes into consideration the characteristics of the hypothesis distribution under diverse signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the PU signal based on the optimal output entropy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed quantization CSS scheme improves sensing performance with minimum number of quantized bits when compared to other related approaches.