Market Imperfections and Price Rigidities - a Case Study of the Greek Manufacturing Industry
This study investigates the market conditions under which the Greek manufacturing sectors operate, and provides a formal measurement and determination of the observed degree of rigidity in nominal prices using panel modelling techniques. Two parameters in particular are found to capture the essence of market imperfections and price rigidity arising from various sources: the first parameter is conjectural variation elasticity which defines the degree of market divergence from perfect competition; and the last parameter refers to the speed of price adjustment towards the equilibrium level, which is estimated along with a set of important factors that affect this parameter. The data sample of this research consists of 56 3-digit manufacturing sectors, as defined by Eurostat (NACErev2) over the period 1980-2012, while the econometrical approach mainly incorporates the Fixed and Random Effects Model for panel data. The estimation process is divided into four steps: in the first step, the degree of market power and the speed of price adjustment are estimated for the whole manufacturing industry; in the second step, the same process is reiterated for the 3-digit sectors individually; in the third step the estimations are conducted for each year over 1980-2012; in the last step, the effects of a set of variables on the speed of price adjustment are estimated in order to provide an adequate interpretation of how market imperfections and price rigidities can be formed and how they relate to each other. By using the Greek economy as a case study, the empirical results provide significant evidence of a degree of market power similar to the one of a duopoly accompanied by relatively slow price adjustment in the 56 manufacturing sectors and the 33 years over 1980-2012.