Endothelial TRPV4 Dysfunction in a Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rat Model
Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia due to compromised insulin synthesis and secretion, or decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin, if not all three conditions. Endothelial dysfunction is a common complication in diabetes in which endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of TRPV4 in diabetes endothelial dysfunction. Male Charles River Wistar rats (350–450 g) were injected with 65mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. STZ-injected rats were compared with naïve rats (not injected with STZ) or control rats (injected with 10ml/kg of 20mM citrate buffer, pH 4.0–4.5), if not both. Rats with blood glucose concentrations greater than 16mmol/L were considered to be diabetic. As the results revealed, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant endothelial dysfunction characterised by impaired muscarinic-induced vasodilation, as well as significant impairment in TRPV4-induced vasodilation in aortic rings and mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, STZ-diabetic primary aortic endothelial cells (ECs) showed a significant reduction in TRPV4-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation. TRPV4, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were also significantly downregulated in STZ-diabetic primary aortic ECs and were later significantly restored by in vitro insulin treatment. Methylglyoxal (MGO) was significantly elevated in STZ-diabetic rat serum, and nondiabetic aortic rings incubated with MGO (100μM) for 12 hours showed significant endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, nondiabetic primary aortic ECs treated with MGO (100μM) for 5 days showed significant TRPV4 downregulation and significant suppression of 4-α-PDD-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, which was later restored by L-arginine (100μM) co-incubation. Incubating nondiabetic aortic rings with MGO (100μM) for 2 hours induced a spontaneous loss of noradrenaline-induced contractility persistence. Moreover, MGO induced significant [Ca2+]i elevation in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing rat TRPM8 channels (rTRPM8), which was significantly inhibited by AMTB (1–5μM). Taken together, TRPV4, CAV-1, and eNOS can form a functional complex that is downregulated in STZ-diabetic aortic ECs and restored by insulin treatment. MGO elevation might furthermore contribute to diabetes endothelial dysfunction and TRPV4 downregulation. By contrast, MGO induced the loss of contractility persistence, possibly due to MGO’s acting as a TRPM8 agonist.