Establishment and impact of Pseudomonas fluorescens genetically modified for lactose utilization and kanamycin resistance in the rhizosphere of pea
The impact of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, genetically modified for kanamycin resistance and lactose utilisation (the GMM), could be enhanced by soil amendment with lactose and kanamycin. Lactose addition decreased the shoot to root ratio of pea, and both soil amendments increased the populations of total culturable bacteria and the inoculated GMM. Only kanamycin perturbed the bacterial community structure, causing a shift towards slower growing organisms. The community structure with the GMM inocula in the presence of kanamycin showed the only impact of the GMM compared to the wild type inocula. The shift towards K strategy (slower growing organisms), found in the other kanamycin-amended treatments, was reduced with the GMM inoculation. Lactose amendment increased the acid and alkaline phosphatase, the phosphodiesterase activity and the carbon cycle enzyme activities, whereas the kanamycin addition only affected the alkaline phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities. None of the soil enzyme activities were affected by the GMM under any of the soil amendments.