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dc.contributor.authorMooney, Roisin
dc.contributor.authorSimonato, Pierluigi
dc.contributor.authorRuparelia , Risha
dc.contributor.authorRoman-Urrestarazu, Andres
dc.contributor.authorMartinotti, Giovanni
dc.contributor.authorCorazza, Ornella
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-05T15:58:14Z
dc.date.available2017-07-05T15:58:14Z
dc.date.issued2017-06-28
dc.identifier.citationMooney , R , Simonato , P , Ruparelia , R , Roman-Urrestarazu , A , Martinotti , G & Corazza , O 2017 , ' The use of supplements and performance and image enhancing drugs in fitness settings: a cross‐sectional investigation in the United Kingdom ' , Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental , vol. 32 , no. 3 , e2619 . https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2619
dc.identifier.issn0885-6222
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 11875826
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c47911ec-3ae0-460a-87bc-c5fa92298cb8
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85021342885
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7371-319X/work/98163910
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/18796
dc.descriptionThis is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Roisin Mooney, Pierluigi Simonato, Risha Ruparelia, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Giovanni Martinotti, and Ornella Corazza, ‘The use of supplements and performance and image enhancing drugs in fitness settings: A exploratory cross-sectional investigation in the United Kingdom’, Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental, Vol. 32 (3), e2619, May 2017, which has been published in final form at: https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2619. This manuscript may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
dc.description.abstractObjective: The strive for perfection is prevalent in the fitness industry. This study aimed to explore the use of products to enhance performance alongside exposure to exercise addiction (EA), appearance anxiety and self-esteem in fitness settings.   Method: An online survey was prepared and piloted before wider dissemination in fitness clubs via snowballing and selected mailing lists. A list of commonly used products, including Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs (PIEDs) was provided. Exercise addiction (Exercise Addiction Inventory; EAI), anxiety levels (Appearance Anxiety Inventory; AAI) and their self-esteem (Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale; RSE) were also measured.   Results: 377 questionnaires were completed. A significant number of participants declared the use products either to lose weight (16%) or to reach their fitness goals (41%). The Internet played a major role in both the supply of information and the provision of the enhancement products (33.7%) and side effects were reported (10.5%). Only a limited number of participants sought a medical opinion about taking products (5.1%). EAI scores were high (m=20.02±4.1), AAI (m=15.98±4.8) showed an intermediate level of anxiety, while self-esteem was low (RSE m=12.59±2.2).   Conclusion: This pilot study identified the emergence of a new drug trend in fitness settings and showed a potential relationship to exercise addiction, anxiety disorders and low self-esteem. The Internet played a crucial role in disseminating often untested products, including PIEDs without medical supervision and unwanted side-effects were reported. More studies in the field are required in order to safeguard public health and inform policy making.en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofHuman Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
dc.rightsEmbargoed
dc.subjectperformance and image enhancing drugs
dc.subjectbody image
dc.subjectfitness settings
dc.subjectexercise addition
dc.subjectweight loss
dc.titleThe use of supplements and performance and image enhancing drugs in fitness settings: a cross‐sectional investigation in the United Kingdomen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Psychology and Sports Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionBasic and Clinical Science Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Clinical Practice, Safe Medicines and Drug Misuse Research
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine
dc.contributor.institutionWeight and Obesity Research Group
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.date.embargoedUntil2018-05-05
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.versiontypeFinal Accepted Version
dcterms.dateAccepted2017-06-28
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2619
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeEmbargoed


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