Measuring Residual Renal Function in Hemodialysis Patients without Urine Collection
Kaja Kamal, Raja Mohammed
Many patients on hemodialysis retain significant residual renal function (RRF) but currently measurement of RRF in routine clinical practice can only be achieved using inter-dialytic urine collections to measure urea and creatinine clearances. Urine collections are difficult and inconvenient for patients and staff, and therefore RRF is not universally measured. Methods to assess RRF without reliance on urine collections are needed since RRF provides useful clinical and prognostic information and also permits the application of incremental hemodialysis techniques. Significant efforts have been made to explore the use of serum based biomarkers such as cystatin C, β-trace protein and β2 -microglobulin to estimate RRF. This article reviews blood-based biomarkers and novel methods using exogenous filtration markers which show potential in estimating RRF in hemodialysis patients without the need for urine collection.