Antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: potential consequences for induction, treatment, and recurrence of C. difficile infection.
Baines, Simon D.
Wilcox, M. H.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key component in the aetiology of CDI, both in the establishment of the infection and also in its treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of antimicrobial agents in primary and recurrent CDI; assessing why certain antimicrobial classes may predispose to the induction of CDI according to a balance between antimicrobial activity against the gut microflora and C. difficile. Considering these aspects of CDI is important in both the prevention of the infection and in the development of new antimicrobial treatments.