Adapting Robot Behaviour in Smart Homes: a Different Approach Using Personas
Duque Garcia, Ismael
A challenge in Human-Robot Interaction is tailoring the social skills of robot companions to match those expected by individual humans during their rst encounter. Currently, large amounts of user data are needed to con gure robot companions with these skills. This creates the need of running long-term Human-Robot Interaction studies in domestic environments. A new approach using personas is explored to alleviate this arduous data collection task without compromising the level of interaction currently shown by robot companions. The personas technique was created by Alan Cooper in 1999 as a tool to de ne user archetypes of a system in order to reduce the involvement of real users during the development process of a target system. This technique has proven bene cial in Human-Computer Interaction for years. Therefore, similar bene ts could be expected when applying personas to Human-Robot Interaction. Our novel approach de nes personas as the key component of a computational behaviour model used to adapt robot companions to individual user's needs. This approach reduces the amount of user data that must be collected before a Human-Robot Interaction study, by associating new users to pre-de ned personas that adapt the robot behaviours through their integration with the computational behaviour model. At the same time that the current robot social interaction level expected by humans during the rst encounter is preserved. The University of Hertfordshire Robot House provided the naturalistic domestic environment for the investigation. After incorporating a new module, an Activity Recognition System, to increase the overall context-awareness of the system, a computational behaviour model will be de ned through an iterative research process. The initial de nition of the model was evolved after each experiment based on the iii ndings. Two successive studies investigated personas and determined the steps to follow for their integration into the targeted model. The nal model presented was de ned from users' preferences and needs when interacting with a robot companion during activities of daily living at home. The main challenge was identifying the variables that match users to personas in our model. This approach open a new discussion in the Human-Robot Interaction eld to de ne tools that help reduce the amount of user data requiring collection prior to the rst interaction with a robot companion in a domestic environment. We conclude that modelling people's preferences when interacting with robot companions is a challenging approach. Integrating the Human-Computer Interaction technique into a computational behaviour model for Human-Robot Interaction studies was more di cult than anticipated. This investigation shows the advantages and disadvantages of introducing this technique into Human-Robot Interaction, and explores the challenges in de ning a personas-based computational behaviour model. The continuous learning process experienced helps clarify the steps that other researchers in the eld should follow when investigating a similar approach. Some interesting outcomes and trends were also found among users' data, which encourage the belief that the personas technique can be further developed to tackle some of the current di culties highlighted in the Human-Robot Interaction literature.