A personalized medicine approach to the design of dry powder inhalers: : Selecting the optimal amount of bypass
In dry powder inhalers (DPIs) the patient's inhalation manoeuvre strongly influences the release of drug. Drug release from a DPI may also be influenced by the size of any air bypass incorporated in the device. If the amount of bypass is high less air flows through the entrainment geometry and the release rate is lower. In this study we propose to reduce the intra- and inter-patient variations of drug release by controlling the amount of air bypass in a DPI. A fast computational method is proposed that can predict how much bypass is needed for a specified drug delivery rate for a particular patient. This method uses a meta-model which was constructed using multiphase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The meta-model is applied in an optimization framework to predict the required amount of bypass needed for drug delivery that is similar to a desired target release behaviour. The meta-model was successfully validated by comparing its predictions to results from additional CFD simulations. The optimization framework has been applied to identify the optimal amount of bypass needed for fictitious sample inhalation manoeuvres in order to deliver a target powder release profile for two patients.