Body composition and functional assessment of nutritional status in adults: a narrative review of imaging, impedance, strength and functional techniques
The accurate and valid assessment of body composition is essential for the diagnostic evaluation of nutritional status, identifying relevant outcome measures, and determining the effectiveness of current and future nutritional interventions. Developments in technology and our understanding of the influences of body composition on risk and outcome will provide practitioners with new opportunities to enhance current practice and to lead future improvements in practice. This is the second of a two-part narrative review that aims to critically evaluate body composition methodology in diverse adult populations, with a primary focus on its use in the assessment and monitoring of under-nutrition. Part one focused on anthropometric variables [Madden and Smith (2016) J Hum Nutr Diet 29: 7–25] and part two focuses on the use of imaging techniques, bioelectrical impedance analysis, markers of muscle strength and functional status, with particular reference to developments relevant to practice.