Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorUllah, Abrar
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Hannan
dc.contributor.authorBarker, Trevor
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-16T00:17:59Z
dc.date.available2018-08-16T00:17:59Z
dc.date.issued2019-01-15
dc.identifier.citationUllah , A , Xiao , H & Barker , T 2019 , ' A Study into the Usability and Security Implications of Text and Image Based Challenge Questions in the Context of Online Examination ' , Education and Information Technologies , vol. 24 , no. 1 , pp. 13-39 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9758-7
dc.identifier.issn1360-2357
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 14920601
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: adba8542-d225-4426-bf32-92ba882f7a0d
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85048815226
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-2273-6679/work/62749212
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/20457
dc.descriptionOpen Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
dc.description.abstractOnline examinations are an integral component of online learning environments and research studies have identified academic dishonesty as a critical threat to the credibility of such examinations. Academic dishonesty exists in many forms. Collusion is seen as a major security threat, wherein a student invites a third party for help or to impersonate him or her in an online examination. This work aims to investigate the authentication of students using text-based and image-based challenge questions. The study reported in this paper involved 70 online participants from nine countries completing a five week online course and simulating an abuse case scenario. The results of a usability analysis suggested that i) image-based questions are more usable than text-based questions (p < 0.01) and ii) using a more flexible data entry method increased the usability of text-based questions (p < 0.01). An impersonation abuse scenario was simulated to test the influence of sharing with different database sizes. The findings revealed that iii) an increase in the number of questions shared for impersonation increased the success of an impersonation attack and the results showed a significant linear trend (p < 0.01). However, the number of correct answers decreased when the attacker had to memorize and answer the questions in an invigilated online examination or their response to questions was timed. The study also revealed that iv) an increase in the size of challenge question database decreased the success of an impersonation attack (p < 0.01).en
dc.format.extent27
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofEducation and Information Technologies
dc.rightsOpen
dc.subjectAuthentication
dc.subjectChallenge questions
dc.subjectCollusion
dc.subjectComputer security
dc.subjectImage based authentication
dc.subjectOnline examinations
dc.subjectEducation
dc.subjectLibrary and Information Sciences
dc.titleA Study into the Usability and Security Implications of Text and Image Based Challenge Questions in the Context of Online Examinationen
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Computer Science and Informatics Research
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Computer Science
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Computer Science
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85048815226&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.identifier.urlhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-018-9758-7
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Computer Science
dc.description.versiontypeFinal Published version
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-01-15
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9758-7
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeOpen


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record