Squeezed between shells? On the origin of the Lupus I molecular cloud. - II. APEX CO and GASS HI observations
Context. The Lupus I cloud is found between the Upper-Scorpius (USco) and the Upper-Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) sub-groups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB-association, where the expanding USco H I shell appears to interact with a bubble currently driven by the winds of the remaining B-stars of UCL. Aims. We investigate if the Lupus I molecular could have formed in a colliding flow, and in particular, how the kinematics of the cloud might have been influenced by the larger scale gas dynamics. Methods. We performed APEX 13CO(2–1) and C 18O(2–1) line observations of three distinct parts of Lupus I that provide kinematic information on the cloud at high angular and spectral resolution. We compare those results to the atomic hydrogen data from the GASS H i survey and our dust emission results presented in the previous paper. Based on the velocity information, we present a geometric model for the interaction zone between the USco shell and the UCL wind bubble. Results. We present evidence that the molecular gas of Lupus I is tightly linked to the atomic material of the USco shell. The CO emission in Lupus I is found mainly at velocities between vLSR = 3–6 km s−1 which is in the same range as the H i velocities. Thus, the molecular cloud is co-moving with the expanding USco atomic H i shell. The gas in the cloud shows a complex kinematic structure with several line-of-sight components that overlay each other. The non-thermal velocity dispersion is in the transonic regime in all parts of the cloud and could be injected by external compression. Our observations and the derived geometric model agree with a scenario where Lupus I is located in the interaction zone between the USco shell and the UCL wind bubble. Conclusions. The kinematics observations are consistent with a scenario where the Lupus I cloud formed via shell instabilities. The particular location of Lupus I between USco and UCL suggests that counter-pressure from the UCL wind bubble and pre-existing density enhancements, perhaps left over from the gas stream that formed the stellar subgroups, may have played a role in its formation.