The Burden of Disease in Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: Patients' Perception of the Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life
Salek, Mir-Saeed Shayegan
Objectives: This study explored how signs and symptoms of pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, a rare hemolytic anemia caused by mutations in the PKLR gene, impacts patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Interviews with 21 adults with PK deficiency in the United States, Netherlands, and Germany were conducted. Participants were asked to describe signs, symptoms, and impacts of the disease on their daily lives. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative analysis methods. Results: The most common signs and symptoms reported were yellow eyes (n = 19), tiredness (n = 18), yellow skin (n = 17), fatigue (n = 15), low energy (n = 13), and shortness of breath (n = 13). Furthermore, signs and symptoms of PK deficiency negatively impact the ability to perform physical activities, appearance, social activities, emotional states, activities of daily living, leisure activities, work and/or school, sleep, and cognitive states of those living with PK deficiency. A conceptual model is presented that further demonstrates the profound impact that signs and symptoms of PK deficiency have on dimensions of patients’ HRQoL. Conclusions: This is the first study that provides patient perspective on the burden of living with PK deficiency and lays the foundation for future studies to examine the effect of pharmacologic interventions on overall HRQoL for patients living with PK deficiency.