Signal Transduction Mechanisms for Lysophosphatidic Acid Mediated Cardiac Differentiation of P19 Stem Cells
The role of endogenous molecules in facilitating stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes is yet to be fully understood. SPC and S1P, common biolipids, promote cardiac differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells, however, the same potential of closely related lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has only recently become evident. The initial cardio-protection offered by elevated LPA levels in response to acute myocardial infarction and the ability of this biolipid to mediate other cellular fates served as a rationale to investigate the ability of LPA to mediate the cardiac differentiation of the murine P19 teratocarcinoma cell line and further examine the role of signalling molecules critical to lineage commitment. All experiments were carried out using P19 stem cells, cultured in supplemented alpha-minimal essential medium. Cells were aggregated into embryoid bodies in the presence of 5µM LPA in non-tissue grade Petri dishes over the course of 4 days to commence the differentiation process. Inhibitors were added 60 minutes before LPA while control cells were cultured in medium only. Embryoid bodies were transferred to 6-well tissue culture grade plates and cultured for a further 6 days. Cardiac differentiation was assessed by examining the expression of ventricular myosin light chain (MLC1v) by western blot and the role of LPA receptors 1-4, PKC, PI3K, MAPKs, and NF-κB were determined by examining the changes in this expression in the presence of selective inhibitors. The induction and regulation of GATA4, MEF2C, ATF-2, JNK, and YAP was also determined by western blotting. The activity and regulation of transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB, and the MAPKs was determined using ELISA kits. LPA induced the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiomyocytes most effectively when used at a concentration of 5µM as evidenced by the expression of MLC1v on day 10 of the differentiation process. Inhibition of LPA receptor 4 (0.1mg/mL Suramin), LPA receptors 1/3 (20µM Ki16425), LPA receptor 2 (7.5nM H2L5186303), PKC (10µM BIM-1), PI3K (20µM LY294002), ERK (20µM PD98059), JNK (10µM SP600125), and NF-κB (0.01nM CAY10470) blocked LPA induced expression of MLC1v. GATA4, MEF2C, pcJun, pJunD, and pATF2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner peaking at day 10 in LPA treated cells. GATA4 and pcJun expression was suppressed by all the inhibitors whereas MEF2C expression was unaffected by CAY10470, pJunD expression was unaffected by H2L5186303, pATF2 and NF-κB expression was unaffected by LY294002, but the latter was enhanced by Suramin. JNK was transiently phosphorylated in all cells whereas YAP was dephosphorylated 24-48 hours after EB formation in LPA treated cells and were both affected by Ki16425 and partially by H2L5186303 treatment. In conclusion, the studies carried out in this thesis have shown that LPA mediates the cardiac differentiation of P19 cells through LPA receptor 2, partially through receptors 1/3, and possibly through receptor 4. Conceivably downstream of these receptors, PKC, PI3K, MAPK, and NF-κB signalling pathways converge on the regulation of cardiac-specific transcription factors GATA4 and MEF2C along with ubiquitous transcription factor AP-1. JNK signalling is initiated through LPA receptors 1/3 and partially through receptor 2 to commence the cardiac program however the role of JNK and YAP in the proliferation of aggregating EBs is yet to be entirely established.
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