More, More, More: Reducing Thrombosis in Acute Coronary Syndromes Beyond Dual Antiplatelet Therapy-Current Data and Future Directions.
Common to the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is the formation of arterial thrombus, which results from platelet activation and triggering of the coagulation cascade.1 To attenuate the risk of future thrombotic events, patients with ACS are treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), namely, the combination of aspirin with a P2Y12 inhibitor, such as clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel. Despite DAPT, some ≈10% of ACS patients experience recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events over the subsequent 30 days,2 driving the quest for more effective inhibition of thrombotic pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of studies to date and those ongoing that aim to deliver more effective combinations of antithrombotic agents to patients with recent ACS. We have chosen to confine the review to ACS patients without atrial fibrillation because those with atrial fibrillation have a clear indication for combination therapy that includes oral anticoagulation and should, we feel, be treated as a separate cohort. In this article, we discuss the limitations of the currently available clinical trial data and future directions, with suggestions for how practice might change to reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis in those at greatest risk, with minimal impact on bleeding.