Socio-demographic and clinical characterization of patients with obsessive-compulsive tic-related disorder (OCTD) : An Italian multicenter study
De Berardis, D.
De Michele, S.
De Ronchi, D.
Altamura, A. C.
In the DSM-5 a new "tic-related" specifier for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been introduced, highlighting the importance of an accurate characterization of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive tic-related disorder ("OCTD"). In order to characterize OCTD from a socio-demographic and clinical perspective, the present multicenter study was carried out. The sample consists of 266 patients, divided in two groups with lifetime diagnoses of OCD and OCTD, respectively. OCTD vs OCD patients showed a significant male prevalence (68.5% vs 48.5%; p < .001), a higher rate of psychiatric comorbidities (69.4 vs 50%; p < .001) - mainly with neurodevelopmental disorders (24 vs 0%; p < .001), a lower education level and professional status (middle school diploma: 25 vs 7.6%; full-Time job 44.4 vs 58%; p < .001). Moreover, OCTD vs OCD patients showed significantly earlier age of OCD and psychiatric comorbidity onsets (16.1 ± 10.8 vs 22.1 ± 9.5 years; p < .001, and 18.3 ± 12.8 vs 25.6 ± 9.4: p < .001, respectively). Patients with OCTD patients were treated mainly with antipsychotic and with a low rate of benzodiazepine (74.2 vs 38.2% and 20.2 vs 31.3%, respectively; p < .001). Finally, OCTD vs OCD patients showed higher rates of partial treatment response (58.1 vs 38%; p < .001), lower rates of current remission (35.5 vs 54.8%; p < .001) and higher rates of suicidal ideation (63.2 vs 41.7%; p < .001) and attempts (28.9 vs 8.3%; p < .001). Patients with OCTD report several unfavorable socio-demographic and clinical characteristics compared to OCD patients without a history of tic. Additional studies on larger sample are needed to further characterize OCTD patients from clinical and therapeutic perspectives.