Integrative roles of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide in melatonin‐induced tolerance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants to iron deficiency and salt stress alone or in combination
Alyemeni, Mohammed N.
There seems to be no report in the literature on the effect of melatonin (MT) in relieving the detrimental effects of combined application of salt stress (SS) and iron deficiency (ID). Therefore, the effect of MT on the accumulation/synthesis of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) and how far these molecules are involved in MT-improved tolerance to the combined application of ID and SS in pepper (Capsicum annuum L) were tested. Hence, two individual trials were set up. The treatments in the first experiment comprised: Control, ID (0.1 mM FeSO 4 ), SS (100 mM NaCl) and ID + SS. The detrimental effects of combined stresses were more prominent than those by either of the single stress, with respect to growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense attributes. Single stress or both in combination improved the endogenous H 2 S and NO, and foliar-applied MT (100 µM) led to a further increase in NO and H 2 S levels. In the second experiment, 0.1 mM scavenger of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) and that of H 2 S, hypotuarine (HT) were applied along with MT to get further evidence whether NO and H 2 S are involved in MT-induced tolerance to ID and SS. MT combined with cPTIO and HT under a single or combined stress showed that NO effect was reversed by the NO scavenger, cPTIO, alone but the H 2 S effect was inhibited by both scavengers. These findings suggested that tolerance to ID and SS induced by MT may be involved in downstream signal crosstalk between NO and H 2 S.