Comparison of Oral, Intranasal and Aerosol Administration of Amiodarone in Rats as a Model of Pulmonary Phospholipidosis.
Steven, Rory T.
Dailey, Lea Ann
‘Foamy’ alveolar macrophages (FAM) observed in nonclinical toxicology studies during inhaled drug development may indicate drug-induced phospholipidosis, but can also derive from adaptive non-adverse mechanisms. Orally administered amiodarone is currently used as a model of pulmonary phospholipidosis and it was hypothesized that aerosol administration would produce phospholipidosis-induced FAM that could be characterized and used in comparative inhalation toxicology. Han-Wistar rats were given amiodarone via (1) intranasal administration (6.25 mg/kg) on two days, (2) aerosol administration (3 mg/kg) on two days, (3) aerosol administration (10 mg/kg) followed by three days of 30 mg/kg or (4) oral administration (100 mg/kg) for 7 days. Alveolar macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage were evaluated by differential cell counting and high content fluorescence imaging. Histopathology and mass-spectrometry imaging (MSI) were performed on lung slices. The higher dose aerosolised amiodarone caused transient pulmonary inflammation (p < 0.05), but only oral amiodarone resulted in FAM (p < 0.001). MSI of the lungs of orally treated rats revealed a homogenous distribution of amiodarone and a putative phospholipidosis marker, di-22:6 bis-monoacylglycerol, throughout lung tissue whereas aerosol administration resulted in localization of both compounds around the airway lumen. Thus, unlike oral administration, aerosolised amiodarone failed to produce the expected FAM responses.