AVNP2 protects against cognitive impairments induced by C6 glioma by suppressing tumour associated inflammation in rats
Glioblastoma is a kind of malignant tumour and originates from the central nervous system. In the last century, some researchers and clinician have noticed that the psychosocial and neurocognitive functioning of patients with malignant gliomas can be impaired. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that part of patients, adults or children, diagnosed with glioblastoma will suffer from cognitive deficiency during their clinical course, especially in long-term survivors. Many nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit the biological functions of tumours by modulating tumour-associated inflammation, which provokes angiogenesis and tumour growth. As one of the best antiviral nanoparticles (AVNPs), AVNP2 is the 2nd generation of AVNP2 that have been conjugated to graphite-graphene for improving physiochemical performance and reducing toxicity. AVNP2 inactivates viruses, such as the H1N1 and H5N1influenza viruses and even the SARS coronavirus, while it inhibits bacteria, such as MRSA and E. coli. As antimicrobials, nanoparticles are considered to be one of the vectors for the administration of therapeutic compounds. Yet, little is known about their potential functionalities and toxicities to the neurotoxic effects of cancer. Herein, we explored the functionality of AVNP2 on inhibiting C6 in glioma-bearing rats. The novel object-recognition test and open-field test showed that AVNP2 significantly improved the neuro-behaviour affected by C6 glioma. AVNP2 also alleviated the decline of long-term potentiation (LTP) and the decreased density of dendritic spines in the CA1 region induced by C6. Western blot assay and immunofluorescence staining showed that the expressions of synaptic-related proteins (PSD-95 and SYP) were increased, and these findings were in accordance with the results mentioned above. It revealed that the sizes of tumours in C6 glioma-bearing rats were smaller after treatment with AVNP2. The decreased expression of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) by Western blotting assay and ELISA, angiogenesis protein (VEGF) by Western blotting assay and other related proteins (BDNF, NF-ĸB, iNOS and COX-2) by Western blotting assay in peri-tumour tissue indicated that AVNP2 could control tumour-associated inflammation, thus efficiently ameliorating the local inflammatory condition and, to some extent, inhibiting angiogenesis in C6-bearing rats. In conclusion, our results suggested that AVNP2 could have an effect on the peri-tumor environment, obviously restraining the growth progress of gliomas, and eventually improving cognitive levels in C6-bearing rats.