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dc.contributor.authorOrsolini, Laura
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John
dc.contributor.authorChiappini, Stephania
dc.contributor.authorGuirguis, Amira
dc.contributor.authorVento, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorDe Berardis, Domenico
dc.contributor.authorPapanti, Duccio
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-13T00:07:15Z
dc.date.available2020-04-13T00:07:15Z
dc.date.issued2020-01-10
dc.identifier.citationOrsolini , L , Corkery , J , Chiappini , S , Guirguis , A , Vento , A , De Berardis , D , Papanti , D & Schifano , F 2020 , ' 'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reports ' , Current neuropharmacology . https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200110121333
dc.identifier.issn1570-159X
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 18744441
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: bcd27e90-4b39-4a82-97b4-09b076ccd0d8
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/22567
dc.descriptionSubmitted 17 October 2019.Reviewers comments received 2 November 2019. Accepted 9 January 2020.
dc.description.abstractBackground: NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine (BZD) class, e.g., ‘legal/designer BZDs’/‘research chemicals’, have recently emerged on the drug (mainly online/virtual) market. Objective: Whilst certain NPS belonging to the BZD class possess pharmacological profiles similar to controlled pharmaceutical BZDs, clinical and pharmacological profiles of current emerging BZDs are still not well-described. Therefore, there is a need to increase clinicians’/public health knowledge/awareness, to incentive harm reduction strategies. Method: A comprehensive overview was carried out by using the EMCDDA/EDND database regularly monitored by our research team, by specifically looking at the ‘new BZDs’ so far notified. Furthermore, given the limitation of peer-reviewed data published so far, a nonparticipant multilingual qualitative netnographic study was conducted to obtain further clinical/pharmacological/toxicological data, including psychonauts’ online trip reports. Results: First designer BZDs appeared as NPS around 2007. So far, 29 designer BZDs have been notified to the EMCDDA, being some of them extremely powerful, also at lower dosages. They are sold as tablets/powder/pellets/capsules/blotters/liquids, at very affordable prices, and variably administered. Some are also sold on the illicit drugmarket as counterfeit forms of traditional BZDs or as either adulterants or diluents in heroin or other synthetic opioids/cannabinoids. Nowadays, there is no guarantee of the quality of designer BZDs composition/purification and, hence, most NPS consumers may be inadvertently exposed to unsafe and harmful compounds. Conclusions: Given the limited information on their pharmacology/toxicity, variations in dosage, onset of effects, combination of substances, potency, and general patient or individual variability, the concomitant use of these substances with other drugs entails several and unpredictable risks.en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofCurrent neuropharmacology
dc.subjectNew benzodiazepines
dc.subjectNPS
dc.subjectnovel psychoactive substances
dc.subjectbenzodiazepines
dc.subjectdesigner benzodiazepines
dc.subjectsynthetic benzodiazepines
dc.title'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reportsen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Clinical Practice, Safe Medicines and Drug Misuse Research
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.date.embargoedUntil2021-02-06
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200110121333
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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