Effect of geometry on the fixation strength of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using BASHTI technique
The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of tendon and cannulated drill bit diameter on the strength of the bone and site hold tendon inside (BASHTI) fixation technique for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Bovine digital tendons and Sawbones blocks were used to mimic the ACL reconstruction. Mechanical strength of the specimens was measured using a cyclic loading continued by a single cycle pull-out load until failure to simulate the real post-surgical loading conditions. Finally, failure modes of specimens and ultimate failure load were recorded. The maximum possible tendon surface strain (i.e. tendon compression) for tendon diameters of 6, 7, 8, and 9 mm were 0.73, 0.8, 0.7, and 0.65, respectively. 80% of the specimens with tendon diameter of 6 mm and 20% of specimens with tendon diameter of 7 mm failed on the torn tendon. All samples with larger tendon diameters (i.e. 8 and 9 mm) failed on the fixation slippage. The maximum fixation strength according to the most suitable core bones for 6, 7, 8 and 9 mm tendons were 148±47 N (core 9.5 mm), 258±66 N (core 9.5 mm), 386±128 N (core 8.5 mm) and 348±146 N (core 8.5 mm), respectively. The mode of tendon failure was significantly influenced by the tendon diameter. Also, an increase in tendon compression (TC) raised the fixation strength for all tendon diameters; however, tendon over compression decreased the fixation strength for the 8 mm tendon group. Finally, an empirical equation was proposed to predict BASHTI fixation strength.