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dc.contributor.authorNapoletano, Flavia
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John Martin
dc.contributor.authorGuirguis, Amira
dc.contributor.authorArillotta, Davide
dc.contributor.authorZangani, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorVento, Alessandro
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-15T00:07:07Z
dc.date.available2020-09-15T00:07:07Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-11
dc.identifier.citationNapoletano , F , Schifano , F , Corkery , J M , Guirguis , A , Arillotta , D , Zangani , C & Vento , A 2020 , ' The psychonauts' world of cognitive enhancers ' , Frontiers in Psychiatry , vol. 11 , 546796 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.546796
dc.identifier.issn1664-0640
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 22514650
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: e3d33cef-1809-4eab-9bf1-4290c91164ce
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/23125
dc.description© 2020 Napoletano, Schifano, Corkery, Guirguis, Arillotta, Zangani and Vento. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.description.abstractBackground: There is growing availability of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), including cognitive enhancers (CEs) which can be used in the treatment of certain mental health disorders. Whilst treating cognitive deficit symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders using CEs might have significant benefits for patients, the increasing recreational use of thesesubstances by healthy individuals raises many clinical, medico-legal and ethical issues. Moreover, it has become very challenging for clinicians to keep up-to-date with CEs currently available as comprehen-sive official lists do not exist.Methods: Using a web crawler (NPSfinder®), the present study aimed at assessing psychonaut fora/ platforms to better understand the online situation regarding CEs. We compared NPSfinder® entries with those from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), and from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) NPS databases, up to spring 2019. Any substance that was iden-tified by NPSfinder® was considered a CE if it was either described as having nootropic abilities by psychonauts or if it was listed among the known CEs by Froestl and colleagues.Results: A total of 142 unique CEs were identified by NPSfinder®. They were divided into 10 categories, including plants/ herbs/products (29%), prescribed drugs (17%), image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) (15%), psychostimulants (15%), miscellaneous (8%), Phenethylamines (6%), GABAergic drugs (5%), cannabimimetic (4%), tryptamines derivatives (0.5%) and piperazine derivatives (0.5%). A total of 105 chemically different substances were uniquely identified by NPSfinder®. Only one CE was uniquely identified by the EMCDDA; no CE was uniquely identified by the UNODC.Conclusions: These results show that NPSfinder® is helpful as part of an Early Warning System, which could update clinicians with the growing numbers and types of nootropics in the increasingly difficult-to-follow internet world. Improving clinicians’ knowledge of NPS could promote more effective prevention and harm reduction measures in clinical settings.en
dc.format.extent42
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Psychiatry
dc.subjectcognitive enhancers
dc.subjectnootropics
dc.subjectNovel Psychoactive Substances (NPS)
dc.subjectscreening
dc.subjectEarly Warning Systems
dc.titleThe psychonauts' world of cognitive enhancersen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.546796
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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