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dc.contributor.authorPatel, Jessal
dc.contributor.authorBourne, Lucie E
dc.contributor.authorThakur, Shori
dc.contributor.authorFarrington, Kenneth
dc.contributor.authorGorog, Diana
dc.contributor.authorOrriss, Isabel R
dc.contributor.authorBaydoun, Anwar
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-15T00:07:10Z
dc.date.available2020-09-15T00:07:10Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-12
dc.identifier.citationPatel , J , Bourne , L E , Thakur , S , Farrington , K , Gorog , D , Orriss , I R & Baydoun , A 2020 , ' 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid inhibits vascular calcification via induction of glutathione synthesis ' , Journal of Cellular Physiology . https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30036
dc.identifier.issn0021-9541
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 22534766
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c5a3bb68-d635-44e8-af99-8db737ca37f1
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-6450-8418/work/80580417
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/23127
dc.description© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.description.abstractArterial medial calcification (AMC), the deposition of hydroxyapatite in the medial layer of the arteries, is a known risk factor for cardiovascular events. Oxidative stress is a known inducer of AMC and endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), may prevent calcification. GSH synthesis, however, can be limited by cysteine levels. Therefore, we assessed the effects of the cysteine prodrug 2‐oxothiazolidine‐4‐carboxylic acid (OTC), on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification to ascertain its therapeutic potential. Human aortic VSMCs were cultured in basal or mineralising medium (1 mM calcium chloride/sodium phosphate) and treated with OTC (1–5 mM) for 7 days. Cell‐based assays and western blot analysis were performed to assess cell differentiation and function. OTC inhibited calcification ≤90%, which was associated with increased ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase activity, and reduced apoptosis. In calcifying cells, OTC downregulated protein expression of osteoblast markers (Runt‐related transcription factor 2 and osteopontin), while maintaining expression of VSMC markers (smooth muscle protein 22α and α‐smooth muscle actin). GSH levels were significantly reduced by 90% in VSMCs cultured in calcifying conditions, which was associated with declines in expression of gamma‐glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. Treatment of calcifying cells with OTC blocked the reduction in expression of both enzymes and prevented the decline in GSH. This study shows OTC to be a potent and effective inhibitor of in vitro VSMC calcification. It appears to maintain GSH synthesis which may, in turn, prevent apoptosis and VSMCs gaining osteoblast‐like characteristics. These findings may be of clinical relevance and raise the possibility that treatment with OTC could benefit patients susceptible to AMC.en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Cellular Physiology
dc.title2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid inhibits vascular calcification via induction of glutathione synthesisen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionBasic and Clinical Science Unit
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionAgriculture, Veterinary and Food Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30036
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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