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dc.contributor.authorAnwer, Saba
dc.contributor.authorWaris, Asim
dc.contributor.authorSultan, Hajrah
dc.contributor.authorButt, Shahid Ikramullah
dc.contributor.authorZafar, Muhammad Hamza
dc.contributor.authorSarwar, Moaz
dc.contributor.authorNiazi, Imran Khan
dc.contributor.authorShafique, Muhammad
dc.contributor.authorPujari, Amit N.
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-01T00:30:30Z
dc.date.available2020-10-01T00:30:30Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-26
dc.identifier.citationAnwer , S , Waris , A , Sultan , H , Butt , S I , Zafar , M H , Sarwar , M , Niazi , I K , Shafique , M & Pujari , A N 2020 , ' Eye and Voice-Controlled Human Machine Interface System for Wheelchairs Using Image Gradient Approach ' , Sensors (Switzerland) , vol. 20 , no. 19 , 5510 , pp. 1-13 . https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195510
dc.identifier.issn1424-8220
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 22633685
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 91cbf745-9bbe-4ecd-9d62-382de2d777b9
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85091722750
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1688-4448/work/81360867
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 32993047
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85091722750
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/23204
dc.description© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.description.abstractRehabilitative mobility aids are being used extensively for physically impaired people. Efforts are being made to develop human machine interfaces (HMIs), manipulating the biosignals to better control the electromechanical mobility aids, especially the wheelchairs. Creating precise control commands such as move forward, left, right, backward and stop, via biosignals, in an appropriate HMI is the actual challenge, as the people with a high level of disability (quadriplegia and paralysis, etc.) are unable to drive conventional wheelchairs. Therefore, a novel system driven by optical signals addressing the needs of such a physically impaired population is introduced in this paper. The present system is divided into two parts: the first part comprises of detection of eyeball movements together with the processing of the optical signal, and the second part encompasses the mechanical assembly module, i.e., control of the wheelchair through motor driving circuitry. A web camera is used to capture real-time images. The processor used is Raspberry-Pi with Linux operating system. In order to make the system more congenial and reliable, the voice-controlled mode is incorporated in the wheelchair. To appraise the system’s performance, a basic wheelchair skill test (WST) is carried out. Basic skills like movement on plain and rough surfaces in forward, reverse direction and turning capability were analyzed for easier comparison with other existing wheelchair setups on the bases of controlling mechanisms, compatibility, design models, and usability in diverse conditions. System successfully operates with average response time of 3 s for eye and 3.4 s for voice control mode.en
dc.format.extent13
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofSensors (Switzerland)
dc.subjectAMR voice
dc.subjectHuman machine interface (HMI)
dc.subjectImage gradient
dc.subjectImage processing
dc.subjectOpen-CV
dc.subjectQuadriplegia
dc.subjectRaspberry Pi
dc.subjectRehabilitation
dc.subjectWheelchair
dc.subjectAnalytical Chemistry
dc.subjectBiochemistry
dc.subjectAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
dc.subjectInstrumentation
dc.subjectElectrical and Electronic Engineering
dc.titleEye and Voice-Controlled Human Machine Interface System for Wheelchairs Using Image Gradient Approachen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Engineering and Technology
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Physics, Engineering & Computer Science
dc.contributor.institutionBioEngineering
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Engineering Research
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85091722750&partnerID=8YFLogxK
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.3390/s20195510
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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