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dc.contributor.authorMoro, Valentina
dc.contributor.authorBesharati, Sahba
dc.contributor.authorScandola, Michele
dc.contributor.authorBertagnoli, Sara
dc.contributor.authorGobbetto, Valeria
dc.contributor.authorPonzo, Sonia
dc.contributor.authorBulgarelli, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorFotopoulou, Aikaterini
dc.contributor.authorJenkinson, Paul M
dc.identifier.citationMoro , V , Besharati , S , Scandola , M , Bertagnoli , S , Gobbetto , V , Ponzo , S , Bulgarelli , C , Fotopoulou , A & Jenkinson , P M 2021 , ' The Motor Unawareness Assessment (MUNA): A new tool for the assessment of Anosognosia for hemiplegia ' , Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology , vol. 43 , no. 1 , pp. 91-104 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 24749838
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 06f922c1-bfd4-4632-9e0b-cd9b2f07a56c
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 33588707
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85100882951
dc.description© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) is a condition in which patients with paralysis are unaware of their motor deficits. Research into AHP is important for improving its treatment and providing insight into the neurocognitive mechanism of motor awareness. Unfortunately, most studies use assessments with widely recognized limitations. The study aims at developing a psychometrically validated assessment of AHP. Method: We developed a 40-item Motor Unawareness Assessment (MUNA) and administered it to 131 right-hemisphere stroke patients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the underlying factor structure. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to determine diagnostic cutoffs, and Area Under the Curve (AUC) analysis used to assess these cutoffs. Relationships with demographic, clinical and neuropsychological variables were explored. Results: Five factors were identified: explicit motor awareness, implicit motor awareness, impaired sense of ownership, agency and illusory movement, and emotional reactions. Established cutoffs had excellent sensitivity and specificity. Clinical, neuropsychological and demographic variables did not predict overall MUNA score but were related to specific subcomponents. Conclusion: The MUNA can differentiate various facets of AHP and provides a detailed profile of (un)awareness. The MUNA can therefore provide robust assessment for research purposes and assist clinicians when developing targeted rehabilitation.en
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
dc.subjectAnosognosia for hemiplegia
dc.subjectbodily awareness assessment
dc.subjectemotions in body awareness
dc.subjectmotor awareness
dc.subjectClinical Psychology
dc.subjectClinical Neurology
dc.titleThe Motor Unawareness Assessment (MUNA): A new tool for the assessment of Anosognosia for hemiplegiaen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review

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