Web-Based Dietary Intake Estimation to Assess the Reproducibility and Relative Validity of the EatWellQ8 Food Frequency Questionnaire : Validation Study
Franco, Rodrigo Zenun
BACKGROUND: The web-based EatWellQ8 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed as a dietary assessment tool for healthy adults in Kuwait. Validation against reliable instruments and assessment of its reproducibility are required to ensure the accuracy of the EatWellQ8 FFQ in computing nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of the EatWellQ8 146-item FFQ, which included images of food portion sizes based on The Composition of Foods by McCance and Widdowson and food composition tables from Kuwait and the Kingdom of Bahrain, against a paper-based FFQ (PFFQ) and a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). METHODS: Reproducibility of the EatWellQ8 FFQ was assessed using a test-retest methodology. Participants were required to complete the FFQ at 2 time points, 4 weeks apart. To assess the relative validity of the EatWellQ8 FFQ, a subset of the participants were asked to complete a PFFQ or a 4-day WFR 1 week after the administration of the EatWellQ8 FFQ. The level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes was estimated by repeated EatWellQ8 FFQ administration. The EatWellQ8 FFQ, PFFQ, and 4-day WFR were also evaluated using the Bland-Altman methodology and classified into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrients and food groups. RESULTS: A total of 99 Kuwaiti participants (64/99, 65% female and 35/99, 35% male) completed the study-53 participated in the reproducibility study and the 4-day WFR validity study (mean age 37.1 years, SD 9.9) and 46 participated in the PFFQ validity study (mean age 36.2 years, SD 8.3). Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated EatWellQ8 FFQs ranged from 0.37 to 0.93 (mean r=0.67, SD 0.14; 95% CI 0.11-0.95) for nutrients and food groups (P=.01). Mean cross-classification into exact agreement plus adjacent was 88% for nutrient intakes and 86% for food groups, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. The association between the EatWellQ8 FFQ and PFFQ varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from 0.42 to 0.73 (mean r=0.46, SD 0.12; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.84; P=.046). Mean cross-classification into exact agreement plus adjacent was 84% for nutrient intake and 74% for food groups. Bland-Altman plots showed moderate agreement for both energy and energy-controlled nutrient intakes. Crude unadjusted correlations for the EatWellQ8 FFQ and the 4-day WFR ranged from 0.40 to 0.88 (mean r=0.58, SD 0.13; 95% CI 0.01-0.58; P=.01). Mean cross-classification into exact agreement plus adjacent was 85% for nutrient intake and 83% for food groups. Bland-Altman plots showed moderate agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the web-based EatWellQ8 FFQ is reproducible for assessing nutrient and food group intake and has moderate agreement compared with a PFFQ and a 4-day WFR for measuring energy and nutrient intakes.