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dc.contributor.authorCatalani, Valeria
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John Martin
dc.contributor.authorGuirguis, Amira
dc.contributor.authorNapoletano, Flavia
dc.contributor.authorArillotta, Davide
dc.contributor.authorZangani, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorVento, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-23T23:06:59Z
dc.date.available2021-04-23T23:06:59Z
dc.date.issued2021-08-01
dc.identifier.citationCatalani , V , Corkery , J M , Guirguis , A , Napoletano , F , Arillotta , D , Zangani , C , Vento , A & Schifano , F 2021 , ' Psychonauts’ psychedelics: a systematic, multilingual, web-crawling exercise ' , European Neuropsychopharmacology , vol. 49 , pp. 69-92 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.03.006
dc.identifier.issn0924-977X
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 24783803
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c84f66ad-adb1-4453-8c7e-6b2c8e6120e2
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85103980219
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8255-0660/work/92730678
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/24309
dc.description© 2021 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.03.006
dc.description.abstractPsychedelics alter the perception of reality through agonist or partial agonist interaction with the 2A serotoninergic receptor. They are classified as phenethylamines, tryptamines and lysergamides. These classes, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), account for an important percentage of the new psychoactive substances (NPS) current scenario. The paper aimed at: a) identifying and categorise psychedelic molecules from a list of psychonaut websites and NPS online resources; and b) comparing the NPSfinder® results with those from the European and United Nations databases. A crawling software (i.e. ‘NPSfinder®’) was created to automatically scan, 24/7, a list of URLs and to extract a range of information (chemical/street names, chemical formulae, etc.) to facilitate NPS identification. Data collected were manually analysed and compared with the EMCDDA and UNODC databases. The overall number of psychedelic NPS detected by NPSfinder® (November 2017-February 2020) was 1344, almost ten-times higher than that reported by the UNODC and EMCDDA combined. Of these, 994 previously unknown molecules were identified as (potential) novel psychedelics, suggesting a strong discrepancy between online and real-world NPS scenarios. The results show the interest of psychonauts, and maybe of the much larger community of ‘recreational’ drug users, towards psychedelics. Moreover, examining online scenarios may help in assessing the availability in the real world of psychedelic NPS; understanding drug trends; and in possibly predicting future drug scenarios.en
dc.format.extent24
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
dc.rightsEmbargoed
dc.subjectNPSfinder
dc.subjectNew Psychoactive Substances
dc.subjectPsychonauts
dc.subjectWeb Crawler
dc.subjectpsychedelics
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.subjectNeurology
dc.subjectClinical Neurology
dc.subjectPsychiatry and Mental health
dc.subjectBiological Psychiatry
dc.subjectPharmacology (medical)
dc.titlePsychonauts’ psychedelics: a systematic, multilingual, web-crawling exerciseen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Science
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.date.embargoedUntil2022-04-12
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85103980219&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.versiontypeFinal Accepted Version
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-08-01
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.03.006
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeEmbargoed


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