Analyzing why Organizations Differ in Board Composition. Evidence from a Large Panel of Greek Manufacturing Firms: Board Composition of Greek Manufacturing Firms
In this paper building upon several theories (agency theory, stakeholder theory and resource dependence theory) and by utilising data from 161 Greek manufacturing companies that were listed in the Athens Stock Exchange on the 31st December 2008, we explore the relationships between the organisational characteristics of the firms (organisational age, organisational size and years listed in the stock market) and the board configuration (board size, board leadership structure and directors’ dependence/independence). The motivation of the study was based on both the peculiarity of the Greek context in the front of a strong economic crisis, but also in trying to establish relationship of board characteristics with factors that are understudied. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA tests) were utilised to answer the research questions. Interestingly and in alignment with the literature, the findings showed that larger organizations tend to have larger boards and greater proportions of external and independent directors. However, no more strong relationships have been identified between the organisational characteristics and the board configuration. The paper contributes by suggesting that while board configuration is being determined by factors like the legal context of the country and the broader external environment suggested by the literature, various company characteristics can explain some of the board characteristics. Finally, it is worth mentioning that this study examines the listed Greek manufacturing companies during very turbulent times, the start of the financial crisis in Greece, which may have an impact on the configuration of the boards at that time.